Monday, January 27, 2020
Crisis Management: Preparedness for Tsunami
Crisis Management: Preparedness for Tsunami Implications of wave behaviour for everyday life How would a tsunami affect Christchurch? The effects of a tsunami on Christchurch and the surrounding areas would be devastating. Depending on where the tsunami is generated the damage will vary. The risks of a tsunami occurring in Christchurch are relatively low, but there is still a small risk. The highest risk of a tsunami is generated off the coasts of South America, caused by the Nazca plate colliding with the South American plate. These two plates have caused many large earthquakes and tsunamis. ChileÃ¢â¬â¢s 2010 8.8 magnitude earthquake caused a 2.3 Ã¢â¬â 2.6 meter tsunami to hit the coast of Chile and Peru. This tsunami travelled across the pacific ocean and reached New Zealand. Authorities stated they did not expect the tsunami to reach New Zealand but later issued a warning stating that waves of up to 1 meter could hit the coasts. Waves were recorded above 0.5 meters in some areas. The Heathcote and Avon estuary in Christchurch received waves of up to 0.50 meters and surges past 1 meter. Lyttleton which is no t far from Christchurch experienced surges over 2 meters, luckily it was low tide and the water didnÃ¢â¬â¢t break its banks. The effects of a tsunami on Christchurch can range from unnoticeable to devastating. The effects of a tsunami depend on the characteristics of theseismic eventthat generated the tsunami, the distance from its point of origin, magnitude and, at last, the depth of the ocean. Small tsunamis, non-destructive and are undetectable without specialized equipment, happen almost every day as a result of minorearthquakesand other events. They are very often too far away from land or they are too small to have any effect when they hit the shore. When a small tsunami comes to the shoreline it is often seen as a strong and fast-moving tide. Tsunamis have long periods and can overcome obstacles such as gulfs, bays and islands. These tsunamis make landfall usually in the form of suddenly decreasing and then rapidly increasing water levels, a combination of several large waves in session. Generally tsunamis arrive, not as giant breaking waves, but as a forceful rapid increase in water levels that result in violent flooding. However, when tsunami waves become extremely large in height, they savagely attack coastlines, causing devastating property damage and loss of life. A small wave only 30 centimetres high in the deep ocean may grow into a monster wave 30m high as it sweeps over the shore. The effects can be further amplified by bays, and harbours acting as a funnel for the waves to move inland. Large tsunamis have been known to rise to over 50 meters, although this clearly never occurred in New Zealand. The initial wave of a huge tsunami is extremely tall, however, most damage is not sustained by this wave. Most of the damage is caused by the huge mass of water behind the initial wave front, as the height of the sea keeps rising fast and floods powerfully into the coastal area. It is the power behind the waves, the endless rushing water that causes devastation and loss of life. When the giant breaking waves of a tsunami batter the shoreline, they can destroy everything in their path. Destruction is caused by two mechanisms: the smashing force of a wall of water traveling at high speed, and the destructive power of a large volume of water draining off the land and carrying all with it, even if the wave did not look large. The energy tsunamis carry with them is massive. People living near coastal areas are advised to have an evacuation plan in place. If a local tsunami was to occur there would only be a few minutes to escape to higher ground. The violent force of the tsunami results in instant death, most commonly by drowning. Buildings collapsing, and electrocution, also floating debris is another cause of death. What evacuation plans are in place for Christchurch? The Christchurch City Council and NZ Police have evacuation plans in place for regional tsunamis. The NZ Police and Christchurch City Council have identified 19 at-risk sectorswithin the Christchurch coastal zone which will be the focus of any evacuation activity. About 23,000 people in 8570 households will be involved in a total evacuation of the zone. Official warnings will be announced via TV and radio. The following are official radio stations that the warning will be issued on: Classic Hits (97.7FM) National Radio (101.7FM or 675AM) Newstalk ZB (1098AM) More FM (92.1FM) Radio Live (99.3FM or 738 AM) The Breeze (94.5FM) NZ Police, Fire Service, Christchurch City Council Park Rangers and Response Team personnel, and Canterbury Civil Defence Emergency Management Group Response Team personnel would start to evacuate residents from identified risk sectors. Evacuation personal will deliver messages to each of the residents of the risk sectors. Twenty-two sirens have been installed from Waimairi beach to Sumner beach. The warning system has been installed and working since July 1st 2012. These sirens will only be used for regional tsunamis that take 2 or more hours to reach the coasts of Christchurch. For a local tsunami the council and police have plans in place. The Christchurch city council highly suggest you have your own personal evacuation plan in place, especially if you are disabled or caring for someone with disabilities. It is advised to get at least 15 meters above sea level, travelling a few blocks inland or getting on top of a cliff, try and take shelter in a two story building if you do not have enough time to go inland or get to higher ground. Tsunami waves can travel twice their height up a wall or cliff, this is why it is advised to be at least 15 meters above sea level. Are the sirens loud enough and is there enough warning systems? Twenty-two sirens have been installed from Waimairi beach to Sumner beach. Some Christchurch residents are calling the citys new tsunami warning system a dud. The $550,000 sirens had been installed on the coastline between Waimari Beach and Sumner. Residents along the coast reported that the system sounded faint. However, Civil defence and emergency management manager Murray Sinclair said the sirens were only meant to be heard up to 600 metres away from the coast, and were not designed to penetrate walls. The sirens are set at 85 decibels, which was the balance between having as many people hear it as possible and preventing anyone nearby from suffering hearing damage. Although many people had to block their ears when standing outside as it was too loud. The reason for the sirens only operating at 85 decibels as any louder and peoples hearing will be damaged. Sound is measured in units called decibels. Sounds louder than 80 decibel will cause hearing damage. 75 db will not cause hear ing damage, even after a long time exposed to it; it is unlikely to cause hearing loss. Repeated sounds above 80 decibels for long periods of time will cause hearing loss. The higher the decibel, the less time it will take for hearing loss to occur. Hearing loss happens when you are over exposed to loud sounds. Sounds over 110 decibels will cause immediate damage to your ears. Inside the ear there are microscopic hair cells found in the cochlea. When exposed to loud sounds these hairs become damaged. These cells respond to sound vibrations by sending a chemical signal to the auditory nerve. The reason being that you lose higher frequencies first is because these groups of cells are more sensitive to louder sounds and therefor are damaged more easily. The human ear can hear sounds in the range of 20Hz to 20,000 Hz. With age and time, the cellÃ¢â¬â¢s stereocilia become damaged and broken. Hearing loss results when the hairs become damaged. Once these cells are damaged they cannot gr ow back, that is why it is important to protect your hearing. Here are the average decibel ratings of some familiar sounds in general life: The humming of a refrigerator: 45 decibels, Normal conversation: 60 decibels, Noise from heavy city traffic: 85 decibels, Motorcycles: 95 decibels, An MP3 player at maximum volume: 105 decibels, ambulance Sirens: 120 decibels, Firecrackers and firearms: 150 decibels The 85 Decibel sirens are designed to be heard up to 600 metres away. By moving away, the decibel level of a sound will decrease by 6dB every time you double the distance from the sound. The Inverse Square Law has taught us that for every doubling of the distance between a sound source and the recipient, the sound drops by 6db. At 1 metre is 85db then at 2 metres the sound will be 79db, 4 metres will be 73db, 8 metres will be 67db, and so on. That would mean at 600 metres the sound would be 30db, this is without considering the factors of weather, humidity, and temperature. Wind would also affect how far sound could travel. Wind currents can alter or distort the sound waves, which travel by compressing and decompressing the air particles. Winds and other airflows can disrupt that action and distort the sound, either by altering its volume so it will sound louder or nearly non-existent, changing its direction slightly, or even altering its frequency. Christchurch residents complain that in the case of a local tsunamis there is no warning system in place. The 22 sirens will only be used for tsunamis that will take 3 hours or more to arrive. Residents along the coast say that we need a warning system in place in case of a local tsunami. Christchurch city council states that they do not have the resources for a warning system for a local tsunami. The risk of a local tsunami happening in Christchurch is very low, there is only a few faults in the banks peninsula area that are capable of producing tsunamis with a max wave height of 1.5 Ã¢â¬â 2 meters. Therefor CCC has ruled that a warning system for local tsunamis would be unneeded. CCC says if you feel the ground shake and find it hard to stand up for 3 minutes or more you should evacuate the area and move to higher ground. Also during a regional tsunami evacuating groups will evacuate coastal areas. Conclusion Are the sirens loud enough? The majority of residents along the coast complain that the sirens are not loud enough. Obviously 85 decibel is not loud enough. CCC will not increase the sound as it will cause slight hearing damage. People complain that during a local tsunami that there should be a warning system in place, currently there is no systems in place for local tsunamis. People have to rely on natural signs. CCC will not install any siren systems as the risk for a local tsunami is not high enough. Are there enough warning systems in place? For a local tsunami the residents complain there isnÃ¢â¬â¢t, but for a regional tsunami there are the warning sirens and evacuation crews in place, also radio and TV will have official warnings in place. References: http://www.ccc.govt.nz/homeliving/civildefence/informationondisastershazards/tsunami.aspx#jumplink8 http://www.stuff.co.nz/the-press/news/canterbury/9227634/Review-of-Canterbury-tsunami-impact http://ecan.govt.nz/advice/emergencies-and-hazard/tsunami/pages/tsunami.aspx#what http://resources.ccc.govt.nz/files/CCCTsunamiBrochure-informationondisastershazards.pdf http://ecan.govt.nz/advice/emergencies-and-hazard/tsunami/pages/gns-tsunami-report-canterbury.aspx http://www.ccc.govt.nz/homeliving/civildefence/informationondisastershazards/tsunami.aspx http://www.ccc.govt.nz/homeliving/civildefence/informationondisastershazards/tsunamiwarningsystem.aspx Analysis of Globalization Theory: Hybridization Analysis of Globalization Theory: Hybridization On a Monday morning, I set out to carry out my ethnographic study at the city centre in Bradford. The city centre, a large surrounding filled with tall buildings with various concrete partitions. The sloping walking hill corner of the city centre witnesses most stores, shops and shopping plaza having their last floor with glass display or walling for product displays with attractive inscription of sales, price slashes and percentage reductions to attract passersby to their outlets. In trying to observe, I discovered loads of people encompassing various demography of gender and age description trooping in and out of the stores, shops and supermarkets with different bags and shopping packages. The people appeared focused inwards and determined to get to where they wanted to be; most people just seemed to be on the way without personal concerns. Everybody seemed to be walking in a rushed manner, like clockwork figures or programmed robots. The flower sellers and a man at the bakery stan d at the middle of the walking arena at the city centre seemed to be the only ones who were looking into the faces of people, trying to get them to stop and purchase their products. They were quite vocal with their sales chant. I also observed an old woman on a small mechanized wheel chair; she looked sober, tired and weary. As she drove past, I saw she had different packages from different stores on her machine tray. Many visible diverse nationalities (assumed based on various perception of sight) walking around were observed to have similar outfits. There were people in jean, jackets, boots, caftans, turbans, hijabs etc. the jacket being the most common and which was a result of the weather conditions and the adaptation of human culture through globalization. Apart from male police officers and one female officer taking a patrol with their hefty wear attached with various mechanical gadgets around them looking ready for crime mongers/war. Most observed people seem to know how and where to shop, there seem to be no description as to where to go and how to go about it but just mere advertisement in the front of every main door step with products of sales. However, a young man and woman were observed to be paying for a Chinese meal in a Chinese restaurant through the Debit Card point service and an attractive TV displaying Chinese movie was also seen from the outer view of the restaurant through its transparent glass partitioning. Looking behind, I saw a group of people discussing in English language and interchanging it with some Chinese language at intervals in a loud manner; while another group adjacent to them even though diverse, appeared to be speaking English but in a quiet mode. A further stroll, noticed the sight of a group of old men seen playing guitar by the road side singing (numerous cultural and globalized music spanning from Westernized to European and even Jamaican) and receiving accolades from a group of people comprising both genders but diff erent nationalities; assumed Pakistan and some European young blokes and ladies. Globalization thesis Hybridization theory Theoretically, Culture and globalization are two diverse concepts involved in this study. Globalization involves a process of local and regional adaptations in many areas of human life under emerging global situation (Mondal, 2010). This elucidates that Globalization creates a double challenge for all of concerns: that of trying to examine and understand these progressions, and their long-term implication, but also that of deciding how human beings act in response to them. Globalization, hence, poses normative preference as much as strained analytic comprehensions (Halliday 2000). It is described as a general currency only in the past decade and include many diverse and often vague meanings, spanning from the elimination of barriers between societies, political and economic systems and the significant enlarged volume of exchange, in terms of finance, trade, ideas or people, amid them (Halliday 2000). Braibant (2002) supported the definition of Halliday (2000) in a way but concluded b y stating that globalization also comes with various infections, diseases and pollution. Hofstede (1980) asserts that Cultures and nations mostly function through essential structures such as the family, local groups, societies and circumscribed traditions, etc. In effect, organizational structures and its functioning are impacted by unique cultural traditions. In combining these two concepts discussed above, Rankin (2009) opines that Cultural globalization is regularly understood to mean the expanded movement of images, goods, technology, people and ideas around the world resulting from processes of economic globalization ever since the 1970s. It has been the theme of sizeable moral angst in academic and popular venues alike, as observers diversely lament the cultural destructions or celebrate the cultural mixings that are regularly understood to go with globalizing processes. In addition, Mondal (2010) described cultural globalization as a process which creates global culture; arguing that globalization intends to expand a world view to support multicultural society and intercultural exchange with relevant respect of regional and local cultures. A range of cultural issues and consequence have been associated with globalization and these can be examined in relation to three foremost theses, which includes; polarization, homogenization and hybridization (Chris 2006). The polarization thesis claims that global interdependence and interconnection do not compulsorily mean cultural accord, as culture is stronger to standardize than economic society and technology; while the homogenization thesis advocates that global culture is becoming uniformed and standardized around an American or Westernized model. The hybridization thesis finally argues that local cultures borrow and integrate elements from each other, creating syncretic, or hybrid, forms. This can be evidenced from daily life activities such as popular religious and music life (Holton 2000). However, this study intends to engage the HYBRIDIZATION THEORY by Pierterse (1994) for the purpose of analyzing the perceptions and observation from the ethnography study. Pierterse (1994) refers globalization as a Hybridization process that results in global mÃ ©lange overtime. He argues that globalization is a multidimensional process that unfolds in numerous realms of existence concurrently, like all important social processes. Holton (2000) however, refers the hybridization thesis has a focus on the intercultural exchange and the incorporation of cultural elements from a variety of sources within particular cultural practices. Hybridization can be described as the chips among polar perspectives, its existence is assumed to be derived from the paradigm of polarization and the paradigm of homogenization, with derived significance in relation to them (Pierterse, 1995). World culture theorists have claimed that world culture exist, but to a large extent less homogeneous than claimed by the world polity theorists (Bryan 2001). Rather, globalization is better characterized by processes, alternatively described as hybridization (Pieterse, 1995), glocalization (Kraidy, 1999), or creolization (Hannerz, 2000/01) where different cultural elements are connected in new and at times unexpected ways as they make contact with each other as a product of different cultural flows (Bryan H, 2001). Pierterse (1995) observed that most interpretation refers globalization as a homogenization process that stems from the perception that the world is becoming more standard and uniform, through cultural, commercial and technological synchronization emerging from the west; and an assumption that modernity is often tied up to Globalization. He however argued that the assumption that modernity often equates globalization and westernization is critical, ambiguous, historically narrow and shallow. Pieterse (1995) advocates that globalization does not compulsorily portray declining of nation-states has frequently been referred. He argues that globalization can be reinforced together with localism as in Think globally, act locally. He opines that increase in politics of ethnic identity and neo-traditional religious actions can also be perceived in the light of globalization even as identity blueprint are emerging to be complex and local loyalties are asserted by people, who however want to share in global lifestyles and values. Globalization is perceived as a process of open-ended interconnection of influence on culture (western as well as eastern). The rapid awareness of cultural difference is interdependent with globalization and there exist both strive for acknowledgment and cultural difference on a global scale. The strive for acknowledgment entails a claim to equal rights, equality and sameness of interest which results generally as a universe with common difference. Pierte se (1994) refers culture as learned and shared beliefs and behavior; making emphasis to the term Learned not instinctual and shared not individual. This leads the argument that there exist no boundaries to culture, as cultures are always open. Nonetheless, Tomlinson (2003) argue that past scholars view globalization of culture in a pessimistic light as associated with the demolition of cultural uniqueness, and also victims of accelerated encroachment of westernized and homogenized consumer culture. He emphasized that the globalization depredation has put identification of culture at risk everywhere, particularly the developing world. His contradictory argument is that globalization is also a significant force for proliferating and creating cultural identity. Analysis of the Ethnographic study and Globalization theory (Hybridization) Glocalization, a concept of globalization that pierces through the heart of cultural hybridization (Kraidy, 1999). The glocalization concept can be viewed from the ethnography study stemming from the outer view of a young man who was using his Debit card to pay for his meal in a Chinese restaurant. This portrays a view of organizations using a global means (use of Debit card Internet banking) to satisfy local customers, and still retaining local culture of its Chinese meal and movie. This shows that globalization is out of the local or global context in which it has been perceived, as people from various nationalities of the world move around taking their country meals in other countries and making payments using a globalized advantage. The view of Piertese (1995), that globalization can be reinforced together with localism as in Think globally, act locally is emphasized. Another perception of the globalization process in relation to the ethnography study is the old man seen playing a guitar by the road side singing and receiving accolades from a group of people comprising both genders but different nationalities; assumed Pakistan and some European young blokes and ladies. The old man seems to entice people with various types of music stemming from European to westernized and also Jamaican musics. This shows the proposition by Holton (2000), that various elements of local cultures are been borrowed and integrated from each other, which in turn creates a syncretic, or hybrid, form. The groups of people viewed at the city centre are also another perception of the globalization process in relation to the ethnography study. The communication methods seem diverse and integrating. A mix of people perceived not to be from the same nationality speaking English and communicating fluently; while the some other set of people seem to be speaking some Chinese language. This elucidates Holton (2000) argument that the intercultural exchange and the integration of cultural elements from a range of sources within particular cultural practices results in Hybridization. The adaption of human nature is also an aspect of emphasis. Most people were viewed to be costumed with jean and jackets, however, some people were seen to be putting on caftans and hijabs; but a constant wear amid all is the jacket. This is as a result of the weather conditions with the most people seem adapted to irrespective of their nationalities or cultural values. Even the people putting on the caftans and hijabs were seen to be putting on the Jackets. This supports the hybridization thesis of individuals and local groups having great power to adapt with in a glocalized world. Local individuals and groups are important and creative agents. The impact of globalization on culture stems from ones thought about how his local culture should be protected from external influence, or how one thinks the cultural creativity results from communication and integration of ideas from diverse cultures (Rothenberg 2003). This was observed in the language, restaurant and musical analysis of the ethnography study carried out. People get integrated and form a cartel of globalised material in the world but however protect their local customs i.e. food, music and language evidenced by the ethnography study at the city centre. Granell (2000) argued that cultural issues are increasingly becoming an important source of strategic advantage, as part of the rising and ongoing globalization process. Although globalization is perceived by developing countries as a threat and an undesirable but nevertheless an inevitable process. He further argued that attributes of globalization does not include eradicating differences, mimicking others, or permitting more developed nations to force their models but rather incorporating differences, combination of strengths, restructuring differences and establishing efforts for a win-win process. He however, concluded by regarding Globalization is a worldwide pressure for change. Conclusion The importance of culture integration cannot be over-emphasized due to migration of various individuals and organizations to diverse nationalities. It is important to be conversant with different culture for enormous reasons; business, personal, social and governmental reasons. The knowledge of various cultures gives us an innovative idea for creating industrious inventions; while also creating better understanding amongst people in a simple way. The knowledge of diverse culture does not necessarily eliminate the cultural beliefs and values of an individual or a nation as posed by various theorists. It is not feasible to expect that the emerging global culture will substitute national cultures. Nevertheless, it is feasible to conclude that national cultures must be flexible and able to emphasize the charisma of their core essentials if they wish to remain significant in some viable style (Bird and Stevens, 2003). Globalization helps us to understand the world we live in and sometimes expands our ways of life. In the globalised times when our lives are rapidly closely tied to events and actions on the other side of the planet, culture that cross national boundaries are needed. Or else we have slight hope of making sense of happening around us. Globalization of culture can help populace embrace and come to terms with several dissimilar identities, without eliminating its own local identity. Globalization around the world those not change a persons perceptive from his local meals, language, music and religion. A globalized culture does increases knowledge of citizens in global world and does not stop them from having a feed day with their localized content, which is in support of the Hybridization theory by pieterse (1994).